Industrial production still requires a considerable and continuous supply of energy delivered from natural resources—principally in the form of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. The increase in our planet human population and its growing nutritional demands have resulted in annual increases in energy consumption. Furthermore, many nations have accelerated their development in the last 10 years, and countries with large populations (such as China and India) have seen even more significant increases in energy demands. This growing energy consumption has also resulted in unsteady climatic and environmental conditions in many areas because of increased emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, dust, black carbon, and combustion process waste.
It has become increasingly important to ensure that the production and processing industries take advantage of recent developments in energy efficiency and in the use of nontraditional energy sources. The additional environmental cost is related to the amount of emitted carbon dioxide (CO2) and may take the form of a centrally imposed tax. A workable solution to this problem would be to reduce emissions and effluents by optimizing energy consumption, increasing the efficiency of materials processing, and increasing also the efficiency of energy conversion and consumption.
Although major industry requires large supplies of energy to meet production targets, it is not the only sector of the world economy that is increasing its energy demands. The particular characteristics of these other sectors make optimizing for energy efficiency and cost reduction more difficult than in traditional processing industries, such as oil refining, where continuous mass production concentrated in a few locations offers an obvious potential for large energy savings. In contrast, for example, agricultural production and food processing are distributed over large areas, and these activities are not continuous but rather structured in seasonal campaigns. Energy demands in this sector are related to specific and limited time periods, so the design of efficient energy systems to meet this demand is more problematic than in traditional, steady-state industries.
In recent years there has been increased interest in the development of renewable, noncarbon-based energy sources in order to combat the increasing threat of CO2 emissions and subsequent climatic change. These sources are characterized by spatial distribution and variations as well as temporal variations with diverse dynamics. More recently, the fluctuations and often large increases in the prices of oil and gas have further increased interest in employing alternative, non-carbon-based energy sources. These cost and environmental concerns have led to increases in the industrial sector efficiency of energy use, although the use of renewable energy sources in major industry has been sporadic at best. In contrast, domestic energy supply has moved more positively toward the integration of renewable energy sources; this movement includes solar heating, heat pumps, and wind turbines. However, there have been only limited and ad hoc attempts to design a combined energy system that includes both industrial and residential buildings, and few systematic design techniques have been marshaled toward the end of producing a symbiotic system.
Another important resource is water – both as raw material and effluent. Water is widely used in various industries as raw material. It is also frequently used in the heating and cooling utility systems (e.g., steam production, cooling water) and as a mass separating agent for various mass transfer operations (e.g., washing, extraction). Strict requirements for product quality and associated safety issues in manufacturing contribute to large amounts of high-quality water being consumed by the industry. In addition, large amounts of aqueous streams are released from the industrial processes, often proportional to the fresh water intake. Stringent environmental regulations coupled with a growing human population that seeks improved quality of life have led to increased demand for quality water. These developments have increased the need for improved water management and wastewater minimization. Adopting techniques to minimize water usage can effectively reduce both the demand for freshwater and the amount of effluents generated by the industry. In addition to this environmental benefit, efficient water management reduces the costs for acquiring freshwater and treating effluents.
This session provides a platform for development of modern technologies for energy and water efficiency and for exchanging ideas in the field. They include, beside the others, the Process Integration and optimisation methodologies and their application to improving the energy and water efficiency of mainly industrial but also nonindustrial users. An additional aim is to evaluate how these methodologies can be adapted to include the integration of waste and renewable energy sources for energy conversion and water supply/purification. The session is outlining the field of energy and water efficiency, including its scope, actors, and main features. The deals with energy and water saving techniques. An increasingly prominent issue is assessing and minimizing emissions and the the environmental footprints: carbon and water footprints. The carbon footprint (CFP) is defined by the U.K. Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology as the total amount of CO2 and the other greenhouse gases emitted over the full life cycle of a process or product. IN a similar way the water footprint embodies the various water quantities used for the manufacturing and delivery of a product. For energy supply, there have been numerous studies that emphasize the “carbon neutrality” of renewable sources of energy. However, even renewable energy sources make some contribution to the overall carbon footprint, and assessment studies frequently do not account for this. The carbon footprint should also be incorporated into any product life-cycle assessment (LCA).
Dr Varbanov worked for the Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, where he still acts as a Consultant. After a spell in the industry in Bulgaria he got a scholarship at a prestigious British University – UMIST, Manchester. He got PhD in Process Integration from UMIST with distinction and won another prestigious EC Marie Curie grant for 2-year research at Technische Universität Berlin, followed by another EC grant for coming to the University of Pannonia - Hungary, where he is a Deputy Head of the Centre for Process Integration and Intensification CPI2.
His experience covers energy saving, water and waste water minimization, optimization of energy supply networks, Systems Modelling, Process Synthesis and Process Operation. His research has been successfully implemented in collaboration with industrial partners: BP-Coryton, BP-Grangemouth, MOL Százhalombatta. Presently he has been contributing to 7 EC co-funded research projects. He has published more than 50 papers in peer-reviewed journals. He is a co-author of two books and several chapters in books. Dr Varbanov acts as a scientific secretary of the PRES series of conferences and editor of the related Special Issues in respected journals such as Applied Thermal Engineering, Journal of Cleaner Production, Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Policy, Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering.
Prof Dr Jiří Jaromír Klemeš,DSc - Pólya Professor, the Head of Centre for Process Integration and Intensification CPI2 at the University of Pannonia, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, Veszprém, Hungary. Previously the Project Director and Hon Reader at Dpt of Process Integration at UMIST and The University of Manchester, UK. Research in neural network applications at University of Edinburgh, Scotland. Comprehensive industrial experience, process integration, sustainable technologies and renewable energy. Successful industrial applications. Track record of managing 73 major European and UK Know-How projects and consulted on energy saving and pollution reduction. Overall research funding attracted over 10 M€. Editor-in-Chief of Chemical Engineering Transactions, Subject Editor of ENERGY and Journal of Cleaner Production, Regional Editor for Europe of Applied Thermal Engineering. Editor of Cleaner Technologies and Environmental Policies; Resources, Conservation and Recycling; Theoretical Foundation of Chemical Engineering and several other journals. In 1998 founded and is the President of International Conference Process Integration, Mathematical Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution reduction - PRES (www.conferencepres.com). An Acting Chair of CAPE WP (Computer Aided Process Engineering) of European Federation of Chemical Engineering.